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The first of Gelendzhik dolmens were discovered scientist the world Plesetsk dolmens – at the confluence of R. R. Dogrib in Padu. It did in 1818. the Frenchman, Young de Marigny. Modern scholars refer to the dolmens of the megalithic structures. So they called the stone buildings of Neolithic – era pozdneosennee. Megalithic monuments to the past include, for example, the pyramids of Egypt and the stone of Hang in England. And, if these latter are known is something, the mystery of dolmens almost not solved.

Dolmens are found not only in our country but also on the sea coasts of France, England, Germany, Belgium, Holland, Denmark, Spain, Africa and the Middle East. For the first time on Caucasian dolmens drew the attention of French scientists in the 19th century in France.

So the word “dolmen” has become international. Dolmen translated from the Celtic language means “stone table”. The Celts an ancient people who lived on the territory of almost whole Western Europe.

Dolmens are still a lot of mysteries..

Archeologists date the building of the dolmens on the black sea coast 3-2 Millennium BC. According to archeology the quality of life of residents of the area at this time was very primitive. They were not yet familiar with the plow and the Potter’s wheel, they were born hoe farming and the manufacture of copper products.

Archaeologists have established that during the bronze age and later were frequently used for burial. At a later time began to be buried in the ground in stone boxes of the more delicate plates and pour on top of mounds of earth. Were these people the builders of the dolmens themselves? In the book V. Megre “Anastasia” can be found clarification: in the dolmens left to die the best representatives of civilization, and contemplate, in a spirit to remain forever on Earth and to preserve for posterity the knowledge they need.

As humans, being many thousands of kilometres, from each other, not having means of transport and communication, could be built almost simultaneously a similar structure? Maybe they were created by a more ancient and highly developed civilization?

Historians about the dolmens.

The history of Gelendzhik area is rich in events and takes us into the distant past. However, the first settlements appeared in these places “relatively recently” — about 20 thousand years ago. This is the conclusion in 1966 came the archaeologist V. E. Shchelinsky, found 6 km from Gelendzhik, on the shore of the river aderb rivers Parking of primitive people. Silicon arrowheads, chipped stones in the form of scrapers and knives, pottery shards, a thick layer of ash from fires, bones of animals and fish — all this is evidence of the first human settlements in these places.

In the IV-III Millennium BC on the territory of the Caucasus tribes lived who left behind one of the most perplexing mysteries of mankind — heavy burial constructions — dolmens. Several dozen dolmens were built in the territory of modern Gelendzhik district. Replacing these tribes Circassians called dolmens “spun” (“house dwarfs”), Abkhazians — “psun” (“house of soul”) or “Adama” (“grave”), the Cossacks called these structures a “good one”.

Built 500 years before the Egyptian pyramids, dolmens, and tombs of the pharaohs, strike our contemporaries engineering perfection and ingenuity of the builders. We, the people living in the twenty-first century, it is difficult to understand how the ancient masters have traveled long distances huge blocks of stone, using what devices they are okay and just customized them to each other, how did round holes in the “door” of the dolmens. Giving food to incessant disputes among the scholars, the dolmens, and today attract thousands of tourists who every year go to a meeting with these “messengers of the bronze age”.

The dolmens are not primitive structures and their builders and designers are likely to have been professionals almost in the modern sense of the word. The sequence and nature of many technological operations on the construction of dolmens more than clear now. There’s a lot of ingenuity and skill and no mystery. For people that used standard measures of length, preliminary layout, water level, bronze tools and abrasives, levers, rollers, draft animals, and more, that can be found in quarries 100-200 years ago – the construction of the dolmens was a matter of time and organization. The more powerful the customer, the more magnificent was the building. By the standards of the time, for example, dolmen group in the valley Janet was built, apparently, for the kind of tribal leader or, as they would say in the nineteenth century, was a princely tomb. Here all required architectural and structural elements of the dolmen is the burial chamber, the buttresses, the mound, the yard and the wall separating them – make up an indivisible whole, demonstrating their functional relationship.

The average size of the dolmens: 2 m wide, 2 m high and 3 m in length. The hole diameter is about 40 cm the Weight of each of the plates 3 to 8 tons, the weight of the tube is about 100 kg. In the Western Caucasus there are about 2500 pieces, including the ruins of dolmens. The whole of them not more than 20%. Dolmens are divided into 4 types:

a) 5-or 6 solid plates, sixth – floor;

b) the compound – of smaller stones, which can also be round;

C) polymeric – hollowed out of solid stone and covered with the upper plate;

g) the monolith is entirely hollowed out of rock.

The material from which evolved the dolmens, was different, depending on the terrain: in Denmark and Britain – granite blocks; in Central and southern France, Holland and Spain – limestone. Most of the dolmens is found on a desolate and barren places on the shores of the sea. One time there was a hypothesis that these monuments were left by the people that was spreading from Asia through North Africa, to the Iberian Peninsula and further to France, Germany and Denmark, but this hypothesis contradicts the fact that the Northern dolmens (Danish or British) are all signs to a more ancient epoch than the southern.

Recently the St. Petersburg researchers are lucky – in 2006 they had made a sensational discovery during the excavation of the dolmen in Dzhubga village. On a stone block scientists have found a petroglyph with images of animals and humans. This finding made for the first time in Russian archaeology. Most likely, images are illustration to an ancient mythological story, the heroes were people, deer, dog and other animals. V. Trifonov deeply convinced that the discovery of petroglyphs on the dolmen of Djugba (he was considered well-studied) is a strong argument for a detailed study of hundreds of dolmens of the Caucasus, previously discovered by Russian scientists.

Researcher of dolmens D. A. Dmitriev assumes that the pattern of the stone table symbolizes the gate of Heaven, and the dolmen is designed so that “is unusual resonator, your singing is inaudible to the human ear the song in whole Universe”. In the chamber of the dolmen there is a transformation of the Underground fire in the fire of heaven.

Dolmens are usually groups and is a comfortable flat ground at higher elevations, located in the areas of watersheds, as well as on the flat tops of the spurs of the mountains. They are in river basins facing portal in open space mostly to the South, the East or between South and East. It is possible that the dolmens, associated with fluctuations together to form a single system and affect nature, weather, or vital biological processes.