The last decade has put before the NIIOSP specialists a number of new scientific, engineering and technical problems associated with the comprehensive development of underground space of cities. The underground space was used not only for accommodation of utilities and objects of transport construction, but also for the construction of large complexes for public and domestic use, multi-storey underground garages and Parking lots, retail, facilities, underground parts of buildings. Significantly increased the depth of the collectors responsible for laying utility lines, and underground viaducts. The features of modern underground construction in urban environments involve the use of new progressive technologies – construction method top-down, buronabivnye piles, discharge-pulse technology, microtunnelling, natm, shield excavation with weights of slaughter, compensation and discharge.
For the first time in our country under the technical leadership of NIIOSP named after. N. M. Gersevanova was built Europe’s largest underground Shopping and recreation complex (TRC) “Okhotny Ryad” on Manezhnaya square in Moscow.
During the design process, designing construction of the underground complex was carried out taking into account the history izmeneniyami-strain state of soil, its initial and subsequent loading, complex design schemes of structures, sequence of construction works and their process stages. Was the analysis of the influence on the structure of the complex of negative engineering-geological processes such as karst, suffusion phenomenon, swelling and heave of soils. Was first developed a scientific approach to the problems of geotechnical prediction and ensure the safety of the surrounding buildings and facilities during underground construction, as well as created a comprehensive system of monitoring, which included monitoring the deformations of a soil mass, the groundwater levels, the deformation of the metro tunnels, sediments of the nearby buildings and enclosing and bearing structures of this new complex.
The complex work was made to preserve the natural hydrogeological conditions and protect the SEC from groundwater. Implemented program of scientific and technical support for the design and construction of shopping Mall “Okhotny Ryad” on Manezhnaya square has provided high reliability of the design solutions, the quality of construction and installation works, prevented the change of the hydrogeological conditions of the site and ensured minimal impact of construction on engineering geological environment and to nearby structures and buildings. In subsequent years, the programme of scientific support became the standard in the design and construction of other unique structures.
Another major object of underground construction has become the NIIOSP specialists complex of buildings of Moscow international business center (MIBC) “Moscow-city”, located on the left-Bank terrace of the river of Moscow in the area of Krasnopresnenskaya embankment Central core of this complex is a multifunctional building, which includes the transfer hub of metro, Parking facilities, shops, exhibition, office and other premises. The Central core is designed as an eight-story building, six floors underground. The building has dimensions in plan 125 47 m2. Excavation depth of 23 m from the mark-plan environment.
The main feature of MIBC “Moscow-city” is unprecedented for Moscow’s intervention in the terms of the existing geological environment associated with the excavation of huge masses of soil in large areas, and subsequent transfer to the Foundation loads from planned high-rise buildings, the magnitude of which is beyond the accumulated experience of construction in Moscow. Designing of a protecting and anti-seep structures along the contour of a Central core and adjacent areas, organized by method “wall in the ground” and from the secant piles and bored, conducted by NIIOSP specialists. To select the most rational design decisions had to be forecast of changes of stress-strain state of the soil massif at each stage of construction. This forecast served as the basis for the development of monitoring systems at the site and, in turn, adjusted based on the monitoring results.
New ideas and developments of the Institute were used and implemented in the design and construction of underground parts of many buildings in Moscow. Among large civilian targets, the creation of which was attended by specialists of NIIOSP, can be called a community centre of the Moscow Government, the Administrative building on Dobryninskaya street Berlin House, underground Parking on Olympic Avenue garage, the Russian foreign Ministry, Turkish shopping center, underground Parking garage to supply medical-clinical buildings of the hospital. S. P. Botkin, etc. A significant contribution to the design and calculation of structures “null” cycle was introduced by the NIIOSP specialists in the restoration of the historical buildings of the CEH “Manege” and hotels “Moscow”. Currently works on designing unique underwater multi-storey garage under the direction of a Drainage channel in Moscow. Significant volumes of settlements, projects and activities scientific and technical support performed by the Institute during the construction of the Third transport ring in Moscow. The main transport hubs on the design and scientific support of which worked specialists NIIOSP, are Gagarina and Lefortovo tunnel. When designing these facilities performed the calculations of tunnel structures, prediction of the effects of construction on existing buildings and the environment, monitoring at the construction site, develop protective measures, the establishment of procedures for special geotechnical works, etc. The NIIOSP specialists participated in the scientific support of designing and construction of deep underground structures for laying communication networks and collectors in the streets of Bolshaya Dmitrovka, Nikolskaya, Karamyshevskaya embankment and etc. the Institute also included the development of protective measures to prevent unacceptable impact of shield tunnelling on surrounding buildings.
The Institute offers:
All types of design of underground and buried structures for industrial and civil purposes, including the development of regulations for special types of work for underground construction ; calculations on the ECM grounds, foundations and underground structures and buried structures in planar and spatial productions of any complexity. In the Arsenal of software of our Institute is the latest finite element complexes developed at the Institute of Russia and abroad and implement modern numerical methods of calculation. There are a large number of programs, based on algorithms created in the NIIOSP and tested on many construction sites.
Non-linear analysis of Foundation deformation.
The calculations of enclosing structures of the pits.
Calculations of the recessed base plates and plate-pile foundations.
The spatial calculations of underground structures, interacting with the base.
Mathematical modeling of stress-strain state of the soil massif and its changes during underground construction.
Prediction of the effects of underground construction on nearby buildings and structures.
The experience gained by the Institute in the process of development of underground space of Moscow, guarantees high quality and effective execution of the most complex orders.