Gothic style in the interior
Gothic — style art. Born in Western Europe. Dominated in art from the thirteenth to the fifteenth century. The Goths – ancient Romans called barbarian tribes made raids on the lands North of the Roman Empire in III-V centuries ad the term “Gothic” appeared in the Renaissance as a derisive nickname meant: barbaric, primitive, fading into the past. At first it was applied to literature as a definition for illiterate, distorted Latin. Medieval architecture was then called the General term “tedesca” (Italian — “German”). There is a version that the word “Gothic” was first used by Raphael, a famous painter of the Renaissance.
Gothic – the pinnacle of medieval art. Characteristic features of this style: the bright colors, the presence of gilding, lots of stained glass, the expressiveness of buildings, spires, harmony of light, glass and stone. The Gothic style represents the last, final stage in the development of art of the middle Ages in Western Europe. The fact of the origin of Gothic architecture is considered the culmination of the Romanesque style. but, at the same time and its overcoming, liberation from it. Long time elements of the two styles existed in parallel, and the transition of the XII century wore related to the Revival of the nature.
The main stimulus for the formation of Gothic art – a unique conglomerate of the worldview of Christianity, ancient traditions and culture, especially ancient Roman architecture,a mix of Latin literature with book miniatures, Celtic crafts. A paradoxical feature of the Gothic style, perfection of forms, which demonstrates the irrationality and immateriality and higher, until the mystical, the expression is that the reason and cause of its occurrence was the technological achievement, namely the progressive improvement of construction technologies. The history of Gothic architecture is the history of rib (arch of hewn stones canted form) and were added (the outer semi-arch stone), which at the time in construction has caused an incredible breakthrough. The use of these structures has freed walls from load and was now allowed to cut their huge window openings, and did not fail to appear, which in turn led to the rapid development of the art of stained glass production. The interiors of the temples become bright and spacious.
Gothic style, having lost their national traits. found one style of character, a recognizable every – striving upward, sharpness and some anerexia silhouettes. Gothic style lost the strong attachment of national traits. Now there is English Gothic, French. there is a cosmopolitan style.
The interior design of Gothic style is characterized by elegance and grandeur. The walls are not structural elements, they became the background for the contemplation of the interior of the home, they are more lightweight, lined with wood or decorated with wall paintings, wall tapestries, textile compositions, bright colors. Wooden and stone floors, taken in the early Gothic period, later began to make carpets today — palusami. Characteristic elements of Gothic — openwork ornaments, lace, stone carving, arched window openings. The entrance of the house, usually decorated with a huge stained glass window in the shape of a rose. Window glass have a lead frame, the lead pickup on all surface. Began to be used for glazing convex, three-dimensional stained glass.of a convex glass. A little out in the shade fashion is the Windows curtains. If curtains are still used, they must be under a setting – openwork fabric, accurately verified the number of accessories of curtains. preferably one work. The ceiling is wooden, with distinct beams, which do not need to cover the exterior finish, available hudojestvennaya the painting on the ceiling.
Typical furniture for the interior in the Gothic style of design: high double paneled cupboard with four, six or nine panels, buffet on high legs, chairs with high backs, headboards to match the chairs. The backs of the chairs and the headboards mimic the architectural details of the fortress castle and Church. Later these details appear and the Gothic ornaments: woodworking lessons being imposed on the accuracy of geometric ornament, contrary to the very nature of wood.
Beds, if they are embedded in the wall, have canopies or large, like cabinets, wooden frames with drawers, and in the southern European countries used wooden design with the architectural structure, carvings and colored decoration. The main materials used in the construction and decoration of interiors of the Gothic era, natural stones, mainly marble, various wood species: oak, teak, walnut, larch, pine, European pine, and juniper. Ceramic used tile mosaic, majolica. Chests off the skin, use a rich metal (iron or bronze) fittings, which are used the motives of stalactites, turned bars. Figured wall moldings often has on its surface a painting or gilded.