Gothic style in architecture of the middle ages – especially European schools
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The Gothic style in medieval architecture replaced the Romanesque, dashing all the achievements of the Burgundian masters. Instead of buildings with heavy walls and small round Windows, the architects of the Gothic style erected “eerily majestic” peaked temples.
French Gothic school
Originating in the second half of the twelfth century in Northern France, the Gothic immediately subdued all the arts from architecture to portrait miniatures.
In the classic stone of the Cathedral stands, as a rule, three or five-naval Basilica with a transept and deambulatorio, which has “the crown of chapels”. Simple composition using the system of buttresses and flying buttresses creates the effect of virtually weightless building. The principle of unrestrained motion in the external and internal appearance of the Cathedral creates accented by pointed arches with pinnacles and vertical buildings.
Despite the presence of stained-glass Windows, arched galleries and reliefs, the first French examples of Gothic style in architecture of the middle ages are different forms of austerity. But in the next century due to the aspiration of masters to structural lightness and complication of decorative details begins a new period, characterized by navisconnect French Gothic style. At this time there are the most outstanding works, which were built, according to the chronicler, “with great diligence and care”, which include the majestic cathedrals of Reims, Chartres and Lana, won the hearts of many European architects and artists.
Villard de Onnector – architect of the middle ages and travels in all parts of France, sketching in his famous album plans choirs, Rosetta, tracery fragments of architectural compositions, various mechanisms and shapes that are present in the design of Gothic cathedrals. Thanks to his sketches of cathedrals and architectural details can be traced in the evolution of the medieval architecture of the Gothic style from the earliest examples to works of the Mature (high) period.
French late Gothic period, the art historians categorized as “radiant” and “flaming Gothic” . so called due to the unusual ornaments (in the form of sunlight and flames) and the particular elongated forms of the pediment and arches.
From France with Gothic influences extend to the neighboring countries, becoming in short time a pan-European phenomenon.
Features Cathedral Gothic art in Italy
Italian Gothic style is very hard to call “Gothic” in every sense of the word. Relying more on samples Cistercian monasteries, rather than the Metropolitan Cathedral, the French Cathedral, Italian Gothic architecture stands out against the European.
The Franciscans admired the beauty of the Cistercian churches and believed that their strict embodies beauty, their closest ideals. Thus, under the influence of Cistercian architecture and the formation of the Italian Gothic.
The Florentine Church of Santa Croce is considered one of the finest Franciscan churches and a Gothic masterpiece, despite the wooden ceiling, typical of Tuscan romanik. The exterior of the Italian churches of this period is usually not a large number of decorative details, to determine the identity of the Italian medieval cathedrals to the Gothic style in architecture is possible only by Lancet arches, Windows, and interior rose.
The development of the Gothic style in England
In English medieval architecture Gothic style, though formed almost at the same time as French, but originally had a number of significant differences. The city at that time practically did not develop, and therefore cathedrals was made not to build in the center city building, but in a more secluded natural space.
Gothic cathedrals in England strongly stretched wide and horizontally, their arches are low, and at the intersection of the main nave and the transept there is often a huge tower. The facades are usually decorated with lots of decorative compositions.
By the way, according to the forms of decor art historians distinguish in English Gothic a few main styles: “lanceolate” . “decorated” and “perpendicular” .
Spanish Gothic school
A number of architectural techniques Spanish architects borrowed from the Cistercians, and combined with traditional Moorish motifs, having a totally unique analogue of the Gothic style of medieval architecture.
In the XIII century appear Burgos and Toledo cathedrals, echoing the scale of the French “Notre-domow”. However, despite the similarity in size and decoration, Spanish Gothic characteristic deviations from the original design and numerous design additions in the form of various buildings and chapels. Spanish architects sought to expand the choir, thanks to simple constructive methods of transforming the chapel into a separate Church inside the main Cathedral.
Due to the relatively small size of the Windows in the cathedrals of the Spanish giant was in semidarkness that have a powerful emotional impact on the congregation.
Features of the German Gothic style
German Gothic was influenced, primarily, French school, German because the wizard chose not only to study in France, but also to work in local workshops. Nevertheless, existing only in the late thirteenth century German Gothic, absorbed the basic techniques of French style, has preserved its national characteristics, creating unique works of Gothic art.
A distinctive feature of the Gothic style in the architecture of Germany is simplified in terms of the structure of the Cathedral, the absence of the “crown bar”, the predominance of odnobashennyh designs and strong elongation of the cathedrals vertically. The mere sight of a German Gothic Cathedral creates a powerful impression of continuous movement upwards, due to incredibly high towers. Exterior decor of the buildings more discreet than the French prototypes, instead of Windows-roses are widely used high Lancet Windows, reinforcing the vertical of the Cathedral.
In addition, Germany is the birthplace of brick Gothic, subsequently widespread in the civil architecture of Northern Europe.