What are the achievements in architecture and engineering building is famous for the ancient Romans?
Looked like an early Christian Basilica and cross-domed Church?
What buildings were decorated with medieval city-commune?
Smiling angel is the embodiment of Paradise. The statue of the portal of Reims Cathedral. XIII, V. 1.
Architecture. The builders of the early middle Ages picked up much from the strict architecture of the ancient Romans, and therefore structures up to the XI—XIII centuries, is called romance (from “Roma” — Rome). The Romanesque Church is the massive building with almost smooth walls, high towers, simple décor. Everywhere repeat the outlines of the semicircular arches on arches, window openings, entrances to the temple. At the same time, its power Roman temples resemble castles. Indeed, they often served as a refuge for the population of the neighborhood.
Together with the Romanesque Church of the executed call for good reflection and prayer. The internal device is also typically medieval. It consists of three or five naves; the Central nave is raised above the side. In terms Romanesque Church has a cross shape in the center of which is the tower topped by a pyramid. Since the XI century in Western Europe began a large building. Rich Church, increased the number and size of temples, perestrahovatsya facilities.
From the middle of XII century in the free cities were built retail space, meeting rooms of shops and guilds, hospitals, hotels. The chief ornaments of the town were the town hall and especially the Cathedral. Built in the XII—XV centuries later received the name of Gothic. Now light and high vaulted arch rests inside the beam narrow, high columns, and outside on the massive supporting columns and connecting arches. Rooms are spacious and high, they received more light and air, they are richly decorated with paintings, carvings, bas-reliefs.
Diagram of a Romanesque Church in rezé
The interior of the Romanesque Church of Saint-Sernin in Toulouse. France. XI-XIII centuries.
Thanks to the wide passages and through the galleries, a large number of huge Windows and Lacy stone carving of Gothic cathedrals appear transparent. Duplicate the outlines of pointed arches, steep roof, tall towers bell towers — all this creates the impression of rapid upward rush.
For a long time the Cathedral was the largest building in the city, he often was able to accommodate all the townspeople. It is not only conducted the Church service, but also arranged meetings,
submission to the religious ” ”
The Cathedral in Reims. Western FA-
theme, listened to the lectures of the profes – garden %France. XIII _ XIV century beginning.
SORS. In a huge ornate Cathedral, among its beauty and Majesty, man was imbued with the joy of the feast, felt
Scheme of a Gothic Cathedral Interior of a Gothic Cathedral in the context of Bourges. France. The XIII century.
a shift in the power of God, looked to him your thoughts and feelings.
(imera. Fragment Yasuda Cathedral Dame. Paris
The medieval cathedrals and now admire their exquisite beauty, the art and imagination of their creators. The cathedrals built and decorated for many decades, and sometimes centuries. Their construction involved a lot of masters, sometimes from different countries. At the time of construction all the masters were United in artel under the guidance of architect.
The temple was built so that it was visible to everyone and from everywhere. It was like a bell its dimensional sound. Rhythm bell strikes, Church murals, stained glass, sculptures and icons were used for medieval people, a measure and a sample of weekdays and holidays. 2.
Sculpture. In the Middle ages, sculpture was inseparable from the architecture and pre-
Atomki about Gothic buildings
In these buildings they arranged so many ledges, gaps, whorls, which deprived all their belongings proportionality, and often, amassing DNA to another, they reached such a height that the top of the door touched their rise. This manner was invented by the Goths, for after time .and eat the ancient buildings and killed the war architects, then the remaining survivors began to build in this manner, filling the whole of Italy God knows ka – constructions. God forbid any country from thinking about the work odobnye kind, so shapeless. (J. Vasari, the Italian exhibition centre – EC, architect, art historian. XVI century.)
I was amazed when close to the Strasbourg Cathedral. At me breath away its integrity and greatness. The Cathedral was composed of thousands of separate, harmonically coupled parts, it was underwhelming and oshyshenie, but to grasp it, to explain it was impossible. (I. V. GE-. German writer. XIX century.)
and 1. How did the attitude to the Gothic art over the centuries? With OSU additional literature will explain why the Gothic has caused such attor – ood people of the sixteenth century. 2. As Vasari explains the origin of the name “Goti – ski”? Check if he’s right.
3. What do you personally agree or disagree with )zestawienie here? property dedicated to religious themes depicted scenes described in Christian books, strengthened in the faith and discouraged with the torments of hell. The churches were decorated inside and out by the hundreds, and even thousands of reliefs and statues depicting God and the virgin Mary, the apostles and saints, bishops and kings. For example, in the Cathedral in Chartres (France) was up to 9 thousand statues, not counting the reliefs.
Margrave the Ekka – hard and his wife Uta. Statues of the Cathedral in Naumburg. Germa nia. Around 1250
Already in the Romanesque style seen worked out by the Ages, the techniques of decorating temples. The greatest attention was paid to the Western facade where the main entrance: the rich decoration of the facade as it is touted in the temple. The portals (entrances) of the Cathedral marked the border of two worlds — sinful, earthly and sacred, heavenly: a Cathedral and they were separated, and bound together.
On the capitals of columns, the roof and above the doors depicted the centaurs, chimeras and other fantastic creatures. They are inherited from pagan beliefs and folk — tales, fables, songs.
Statue of the Cathedral in Amiens. France Around 1220
Unlike ancient art, praising the beauty of the human body, artists of the Middle ages sought to discover the richness of the soul, the thoughts and feelings of man, his intense inner life.
In the Gothic statues of saints more movement, their thin, elongated shapes are especially vividly convey the true face of people.
The main piece of decor in the Church, in the monk’s cell, in the bedroom of the laity was the image of the crucified Christ. Innocence and exaltation through suffering and mercy — this is the main idea of medieval art.
There are many images of the virgin Mary, the Madonna. Loved her devotedly, she prayed passionately; it was seen as the intercessor for the people before the Son. But the master sought in the image of the Madonna and Child at the hands of the chant and sacrificial power of maternal love.
,Centralnyi the entrance of Chartres Cathedral. France. XII in the end
Fragment urtula of Chartres Cathedral , 3.
Painting. The walls of Romanesque churches were covered with paintings. But on the walls of Gothic cathedrals for they had little place. The huge Windows were filled with stained glass pictures or patterns from pieces of colored glass bonded together with lead rims. Through the stained glass Windows light penetrated into the temple, playing on the columns, the arches and the stone floor colorful flare, and it gave all dressy, festive look.
A great achievement painting was the portrait miniature. The many vivid drawings reflect the life of people of different origins and prosperity: how they dressed and combed her hair, left home, worked and spent leisure time, what they believed and feared. In the famous “Great chronicle” describes in pictures the whole history of France, from the Merovingian to the XIV century. In illustrations to the book of German love songs presents life with jousting tournaments, hunting, the worship of the Beautiful Lady.
The most celebrated specimen of miniature — “kalen – hit of the Duke of Berry”.
It was made in the early fifteenth century by the brothers lim – Bourg, who worked in France. Miniature calendar reflected the new attitude to nature: people have the desire to admire her beauty.
Images of people in
minutes of work, leisure, relationships, and connections with
nature, transmission of light, the use of light and shade — these were innovations in book miniatures.
“October”. Miniature of the XV century.
What is the mood creates the thumbnail?
Everyday scenes were depicted on the frescoes, especially the German and Scandinavian churches of XIV—XV centuries.
1.On the basis of the text and illustrations make a story about Romanesque and Gothic cathedrals. 2. Develop a table to map the Romanesque and Gothic cathedrals parts of their plan, architectural items, interior decoration. 3. What thoughts and feelings sought to Express in their works of medieval architects and sculptors? By what means they were reached? 4. What was the effect of the use of stained glass in the Gothic Church? 5. What new did the late middle Ages in book miniatures and fresco painting?
E1. What do contemporary viewers make extant medieval Gothic cathedrals? 2. Explain the meaning of “Goth – child of the city”. 3. Find out what were the similarities and differences in the architecture and in the interiors of Catholic and Orthodox churches of the middle Ages. Use additional literature and Internet resources. 4. How did the image of man in medieval art compared to ancient? 5. Write an essay on behalf of the person who first got into the Gothic Cathedral. What would cause him the temple of your interior and exterior decoration?